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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD PERFORMANCE OF BEANS

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CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Bean is also sometimes used to refer to the seeds or pods of plants that are not in the family leguminosae, but which bear a superficial resemblance to true beans. For example coffee beans, castor beans and cocoa beans (which resemble bean seeds), and vanilla beans, which superficially resemble bean pods.

Bean is a common name for large plant seeds used for human food or animal feed of several general of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae).

The term bean originally referred to the seed of the broad or fava bean but was later expanded to include members of the New World genus Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, and the related genus Vigna. The term is now applied generally to many other related plants such as Old World soybeans, peas, chickpeas (garbanzos), vetches, and lupins.

Bean is sometimes used as a synonym of pulse an edible legume, though the term pulses is normally reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain. The term bean usually excludes crops used mainly for oil extraction (such as soybeans and peanuts), as well as those used exclusively for sowing purposes (such as clover and alfalfa). Leguminous crops harvested green for food, such as snap peas, snow peas, and so on, are not considered beans, and are classified as vegetable crops. According to United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization the term bean should include only species of Phaseolus; however, a strict consensus definition has proven difficult because in the past, several species such as Vigna angularis (azuki bean), mungo (black gram), radiata (green gram), aconitifolia (moth bean)) were classified as Phaseolus and later reclassified. The use of the term bean to refer to species other than Phaseolus thus remains. In some countries, the term bean can mean a host of different species.

Cultivation of Beans

Unlike the closely related pea, beans are a summer crop that needs warm temperatures to grow. Maturity is typically 55–60 days from planting to harvest. As the bean pods mature, they turn yellow and dry up, and the beans inside change from green to their mature colour. As a vine, bean plants need external support, which may be provided in the form of special "bean cages" or poles. Native Americans customarily grew them along with corn and squash with the tall cornstalks acting as support for the beans.

In more recent times, the so-called "bush bean" has been developed which does not require support and has all its pods develop simultaneously (as opposed to pole beans which develop gradually). This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production.

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important source of protein and calories in human diets in tropical and subtropical developing countries, particularly in the Americas and in Eastern and Southern Africa. Laing (1984). In view of the widely diverse cropping systems under which common bean is grown, commercial yields are very variable and often fall far below the genetic potential of the species Graham and Ranalli, (1997). The use of grains for sowing, instead of selected seed, is one factor that contributes to such low commercial yields, since sowing seed of high quality can increase bean yield up to 40 % Embrapa, (1994).

Seed weight of common bean is genetically controlled, probably by few genes with a large phenotypic effect, and the domestication of the species has led to larger seed than the wild progenitors Koinange (1996). However, the same seed lot when harvested usually contains seeds of widely varying size and quality, due to plant genetic variation, inter-plant competition, diseases, and inflorescence location that reflects differences in flowering times and nutrition of the developing seeds Wood (1977). The use of larger seed of a seed stock usually results in increased germination, speedier emergence, and improved seedling growth Wood (1977). Comparisons within the same bean cultivar have shown that large seed had higher and faster germination Marcos Filho and Avancine, (1983) and produced plants with increased shoot and root growth in the field Perin (2002). Moreover, seed reserves influence plant nutritional efficiency: shoot growth and P uptake of bean genotypes grown under low P supply were positively correlated with their seed mass Yan(1995), and bean plants originating from seeds with low P concentration showed poorer growth and nodulation as compared to plants originating from high P seeds (Teixeira et al., 1999).

However, studies comparing common bean genotypes of different seed sizes indicated a negative relationship between seed mass and grain yield (Laing et al., 1984; White and González, 1990; White et al., 1992; Sexton et al., 1994). Large-seeded bean genotypes also presented reduced overall plant growth (White et al., 1992) and lower leaf carbon exchange rates (Sexton et al., 1997). White and González (1990) delineated three broad hypotheses which might explain this negative association in common bean: the small seed, or a closely linked characteristic such as cell size, is associated with greater physiological efficiency; large seeds require a greater seed-filling rate or duration of filling; and there is no physiological reason why yield should vary with seed size. Moreover, these differences in yield potential between large- and small-seeded bean genotypes may be a function of cultivar adaptation associated with the region of domestication (Sexton et al., 1994), since small-seeded genotypes were domesticated in a Mesoamerican center while large-seeded genotypes are predominately of Andean origin (Gepts et al., 1986).

Current methods of seed grading and processing remove non-viable seed and select for uniform shape and size. Seed uniformity improves the precision of mechanical drilling and often results in more homogeneous stands (Krzyzanowski et al., 1991). Superior yield performance of large seed of the same bean cultivar would implicate in grading out small seed by seed producers or by farmers themselves, thus affecting the seed market. Therefore, one should distinguish the effects of seed size among bean cultivars of different seed sizes, which can be associated with the physiological adaptation of distinct gene pools, from the effects of the seed size within the same cultivar.

This investigation had the objective of evaluating the effects of sowing different seed sizes of the same cultivar on biomass accumulation and grain yield of common bean cultivars of different seed sizes.

 

 

Classification of Beans

Kingdom:

Plantae

Division:

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order:

Fabales

Family:

Fabaceae

TYPES OF BEANS

All beans belong to the legume family. Snap and lima beans belong to the genus Phaseolus, while mung, adzuki, garbanzo, fava, and others belong to different genera. In general, there are two main bean types: shell beans, grown for their protein-rich seeds, which are eaten both fresh and dried; and snap beans, cultivated mainly for their pods.

The two groups are further divided according to growth habit. Bush types are generally self-supporting. Pole beans have twining vines that require support from stakes, strings, wires, or trellises. Runner beans are similar to pole beans, although runners need cooler growing conditions. Half-runners, popular in the South, fall somewhere in between pole and bush beans.

Adzuki beans: which come from Japan, are extra rich in protein. The small plants produce long, thin pods that are eaten like snap beans. When mature at 90 days, they contain 7 to 10 small, nutty-tasting, maroon-colored beans that are tasty fresh or dried.

Black beans: also called black turtle beans, have jet-black seeds and need approximately 3 months of warm, frost-free days to mature. The dried beans are popular for soups and stews. Most are sprawling, half-runner-type plants, but some cultivars, like 'Midnight Black Turtle', have more upright growth habits.

Black-eyed peas: also called cowpeas or southern peas, are cultivated like beans. They need long summers with temperatures averaging between 60° and 70°F. Use fresh pods like snap beans, shell and cook the pods and seeds together, or use them like other dried beans.

Fava beans: also known as broad, horse, or cattle beans, are one of the world's oldest cultivated foods. They are second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable protein, but they're much more common as a garden crop in Europe than in the United States. You won't find a wide range of varieties in most seed catalogs, unless you choose a seed company that specializes in Italian vegetables. Unlike other beans, favas thrive in cold, damp weather. They take about 75 days to mature. Fava beans need to be cooked and shucked from their shells and the individual seed skins peeled off before eating.

1.2       Statement of the Problems

            Due to inappropriate organic practices and a variety of factors such as lack of capital, inappropriate use of organic manures, unavailability of required materials to farmers and limited extension delivery, the yield have remained low. Therefore, this study wanting to examine the growth and yield performance of beans and to find possible solutions to above problems stated.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this study is to model a critical analysis on the growth and yield performance of beans. Moreover, this study has roles to play in other to ensure effective farming process in the society.

1.4       Significant of the Study

            When this work is completed using all the information and data at hand, with the retrieve one in respect of this research, it is expected to give an account of the growth and yield performance of beans.

1.5       Limitations of the Study

            This research is intended to carry out a complete evaluation of the growth and yield performance of beans. Due to time and francium constraints, the researcher would limit the research to only Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.

1.6       Relevant Research Questions

1.         Are there any significant relationship between soil and the performance of bean?

2.         Is there any significant differences between manure and performances of beans?

3.         Is there any comparative significance use of organic manure and the performance of beans?

4.         Is there any significant different in the yield to beans treated with bio-fertilizers on growth of beans?

1.7       Research Hypothesis

H1          there is significant relationship between yield of beans and bio-fertilizers

H2        there is no significant differences between soil and growth of beans

H3          there is significant relationship between soil treated with manure and growth performance of beans            

H4        there is significant relationship between comparative use of organic manures and growth performance of beans

1.8       Definition of Term

Beans: It can be described as an edible, typically kidney shaped growing in long pods on certain leguminous plants. It is also an edible nutritious seed of various plants that legume family, especially of the genus phaseolus.           

Soil:  It is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow or dark brown materials typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay or rock particles, it is also the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids and the myriad of organisms that together supports plants life.

Fertilizers: : this is any materials of natural or synthetic origins that is applied to soil on to plants tissues to supply one or more plants nutrients essential to the growth of plant.

Manure: It can be explained as any animals or plants materials used to fertilize land especially animal excreta usually with little material.      

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